Diversos pesquisadores no mundo já empregam o Sistema de Posicionamento Global (GPS) na análise de tempo e movimento em diferentes modalidades esportivas. No mundo real 😉 alguns clubes de futebol (Chelsea, Liverpool, Fulham, Barcelona, Real Madrid, AC Milan, Juventus, Ajax, Werder Bremen, Redbull, Panathinaikos, Porto) já fazem uso desta ferramenta.
Atletas do Liverpool usando GPS em seus treinos
Agora, após parceira com o Grupo de Estudo das Adaptações Fisiológicas ao Treinamento (GEAFIT) da Universidade Estadual de Londrina, o Grupo de Treinamento Esportivo e Desempenho Físico (GEPETED) da ESEF/UFPel começa a explorar esta tecnologia.
Para isto, o mestrando Yuri Salenave Ribeiro está desenvolvendo projeto de mestrado que testará diferentes sessões de treino do futebol na aptidão física de jogadores. No entanto, há um passo anterior: o GPS está ajudando na melhor configuração e caracterização das sessões de treino, quando comparadas ao jogo real.
Embora a tecnologia pareça simples, ela é substancialmente diferente da disponível nos atuais smartphones. Enquanto nestes equipamentos a taxa de aquisição de dados é de 1 a 5 Hz, nos equipamentos que estão sendo atualizados ela é de 100 Hz, ou seja, muito mais preciso para ações em grande velocidade e de alta intensidade no esporte. Depois do futebol o GEPETED já tem compromisso marcado com: futsal, pádel, tênis e rugby.
Para quem quiser ler sobre o assunto, sugiro:
Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2011 Sep;6(3):295-310.
Applications of GPS technologies to field sports.
Global positioning system (GPS) technology was made possible after the invention of the atomic clock. The first suggestion that GPS could be used to assess the physical activity of humans followed some 40 y later. There was a rapid uptake of GPS technology, with the literature concentrating on validation studies and the measurement of steady-state movement. The first attempts were made to validate GPS for field sport applications in 2006. While GPS has been validated for applications for team sports, some doubts continue to exist on the appropriateness of GPS for measuring short high-velocity movements. Thus, GPS has been applied extensively in Australian football, cricket, hockey, rugby union and league, and soccer. There is extensive information on the activity profile of athletes from field sports in the literature stemming from GPS, and this includes total distance covered by players and distance in velocity bands. Global positioning systems have also been applied to detect fatigue in matches, identify periods of most intense play, different activity profiles by position, competition level, and sport. More recent research has integrated GPS data with the physical capacity or fitness test score of athletes, game-specific tasks, or tactical or strategic information. The future of GPS analysis will involve further miniaturization of devices, longer battery life, and integration of other inertial sensor data to more effectively quantify the effort of athletes.
J Strength Cond Res. 2012 Mar;26(3):818-24. doi: 10.1519/JSC.0b013e3182276555.
Global positioning system data analysis: velocity ranges and a new definition of sprinting for field sport athletes.
Dwyer DB, Gabbett TJ.
Global positioning system (GPS) technology has improved the speed, accuracy, and ease of time-motion analyses of field sport athletes. The large volume of numerical data generated by GPS technology is usually summarized by reporting the distance traveled and time spent in various locomotor categories (e.g., walking, jogging, and running). There are a variety of definitions used in the literature to represent these categories, which makes it nearly impossible to compare findings among studies. The purpose of this work was to propose standard definitions (velocity ranges) that were determined by an objective analysis of time-motion data. In addition, we discuss the limitations of the existing definition of a sprint and present a new definition of sprinting for field sport athletes. Twenty-five GPS data files collected from 5 different sports (men’s and women’s field hockey, men’s and women’s soccer, and Australian Rules Football) were analyzed to identify the average velocity distribution. A curve fitting process was then used to determine the optimal placement of 4 Gaussian curves representing the typical locomotor categories. Based on the findings of these analyses, we make recommendations about sport-specific velocity ranges to be used in future time-motion studies of field sport athletes. We also suggest that a sprint be defined as any movement that reaches or exceeds the sprint threshold velocity for at least 1 second and any movement with an acceleration that occurs within the highest 5% of accelerations found in the corresponding velocity range. From a practical perspective, these analyses provide conditioning coaches with information on the high-intensity sprinting demands of field sport athletes, while also providing a novel method of capturing maximal effort, short-duration sprints.
Int J Sports Med. 2013 Feb;34(2):101-10. doi: 10.1055/s-0032-1306323. Epub 2012 Sep 7.
Match play intensity distribution in youth soccer.
Mendez-Villanueva A, Buchheit M, Simpson B, Bourdon PC.
The purpose of this study was to quantify match play intensity distribution in young soccer players in relation to age, playing position and physical fitness. Distance covered and heart rate were measured (global positioning system) on 103, highly-trained young players (Under13 to Under 18) during 42 international club games. Maximal sprinting speed (MSS), estimated maximal aerobic speed (MAS) and maximal heart rate (HRmax) were assessed via field test measures. Distance covered and heart rate (HR) were categorized into 5 intensity zones relative to MSS and MAS and HR(max), respectively. Intensity distribution was significantly influenced by both age and playing position with younger groups, wide-midfielders and strikers covering the greatest distance above the MAS. There was a significant, negative, large-to-very large correlation (r= -0.52-0.74) between MAS and the distance run at speeds above MAS for all positions except strikers. HR responses were not different across age groups and playing positions. Distance covered below MAS were lower in the second half for all positions (P<0.05; 0.08<η(2)<0.20), while distance covered at intensities above MAS were maintained (P>0.1; 0.00<η(2)<0.03). This reduction in distance covered below MAS was not related to a player’s physical capacity. Except for strikers, a superior aerobic fitness level was unlikely to affect total distance covered but was associated with a reduced individual running demand during the game.
J Strength Cond Res. 2011 Aug;25(8):2100-3. doi: 10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181fb4587.
Relation between total body load and session rating of perceived exertion in professional soccer players.
Gomez-Piriz PT, Jiménez-Reyes P, Ruiz-Ruiz C.
The aims of this study were to assess (a) the validity of total body load (TBL)-obtained from the global position system (GPS) devices-to quantify soccer training load, assessing its relationship with session rating of perceived exertion (session-RPE) and (b) to analyze the differences in terms of TBL and session-RPE among defenders, midfielders, and forwards. Twenty-two professional soccer players (Spanish first division, season 2007-2008; 26.74 ± 4.2 years; height 179.74 ± 4.04 cm; weight 73.7 ± 3.35 kg) participated in the study. During 13 training sessions composed predominantly of small-sided games, TBL and RPE multiplied by the minutes of session duration were determined using GPS and the 21-point scale, respectively. In each session, data from 10 players randomly selected and classified according to player position (defenders, midfielders, and forwards) were collected. Although session-RPE was a significant predictor of TBL (β = 0.23, p < 0.05), this method only accounted for 5% of the variance in TBL. No significant differences in terms of TBL and session-RPE were found regarding player position. The results of this study suggest that TBL is not a valid measure to quantify training load because it is not strongly correlated with session-RPE. Furthermore, TBL and session-RPE in small-sided soccer games do not vary according to player positions.
Int J Sports Med. 2010 Nov;31(11):818-25. doi: 10.1055/s-0030-1262838. Epub 2010 Aug 11.
Match running performance and fitness in youth soccer.
Buchheit M, Mendez-Villanueva A, Simpson BM, Bourdon PC.
The activity profiles of highly trained young soccer players were examined in relation to age, playing position and physical capacity. Time-motion analyses (global positioning system) were performed on 77 (U13-U18; fullbacks [FB], centre-backs [CB], midfielders [MD], wide midfielders [W], second strikers [2 (nd)S] and strikers [S]) during 42 international club games. Total distance covered (TD) and very high-intensity activities (VHIA; >16.1 km·h (-1)) were computed during 186 entire player-matches. Physical capacity was assessed via field test measures (e. g., peak running speed during an incremental field test, VVam-eval). Match running performance showed an increasing trend with age ( P<0.001, partial eta-squared (η (2)): 0.20-0.45). When adjusted for age and individual playing time, match running performance was position-dependent ( P<0.001, η (2): 0.13-0.40). MD covered the greater TD; CB the lowest ( P<0.05). Distance for VHIA was lower for CB compared with all other positions ( P<0.05); W and S displayed the highest VHIA ( P<0.05). Relationships between match running performance and physical capacities were position-dependent, with poor or non-significant correlations within FB, CB, MD and W (e. g., VHIA vs. VVam-eval: R=0.06 in FB) but large associations within 2 (nd)S and S positions (e. g., VHIA vs. VVam-eval: R=0.70 in 2 (nd)S). In highly trained young soccer players, the importance of fitness level as a determinant of match running performance should be regarded as a function of playing position.
J Sports Sci. 2009 Jan 15;27(2):159-68. doi: 10.1080/02640410802512775.
High-intensity running in English FA Premier League soccer matches.
Bradley PS, Sheldon W, Wooster B, Olsen P, Boanas P, Krustrup P.
The aims of this study were to (1) determine the activity profiles of a large sample of English FA Premier League soccer players and (2) examine high-intensity running during elite-standard soccer matches for players in various playing positions. Twenty-eight English FA Premier League games were analysed during the 2005-2006 competitive season (n=370), using a multi-camera computerised tracking system. During a typical match, wide midfielders (3138 m, s=565) covered a greater distance in high-intensity running than central midfielders (2825 m, s= 73, P=0.04), full-backs (2605 m, s=387, P < 0.01), attackers (2341 m, s=575, P < 0.01), and central defenders (1834 m, s=256, P < 0.01). In the last 15 min of a game, high-intensity running distance was approximately 20% less than in the first 15-min period for wide midfielders (467 m, s=104 vs. 589 m, s=134, P < 0.01), central midfielders (429 m, s=106 vs. 534 m, s=99, P < 0.01), full-backs (389 m, s=95 vs. 481 m, s=114, P < 0.01), attackers (348 m, s=105 vs. 438 m, s=129, P < 0.01), and central defenders (276 m, s=93 vs. 344 m, s=80, P < 0.01). There was a similar distance deficit for high-intensity running with (148 m, s=78 vs. 193 m, s=96, P < 0.01) and without ball possession (229 m, s=85 vs. 278 m, s=97, P < 0.01) between the last 15-min and first 15-min period of the game. Mean recovery time between very high-intensity running bouts was 72 s (s=28), with a 28% longer recovery time during the last 15 min than the first 15 min of the game (83 s, s=26 vs. 65 s, s=20, P < 0.01). The decline in high-intensity running immediately after the most intense 5-min period was more evident in attackers (216 m, s=50 vs. 113 m, s=47, P < 0.01) and central defenders (182 m, s=26 vs. 96 m, s=39, P < 0.01). The results suggest that high-intensity running with and without ball possession is reduced during various phases of elite-standard soccer matches and the activity profiles and fatigue patterns vary among playing positions. The current findings provide valuable information about the high-intensity running patterns of a large sample of elite-standard soccer players, which could be useful in the development and prescription of specific training regimes.
Int J Sports Med. 2010 Oct;31(10):709-16. doi: 10.1055/s-0030-1261897. Epub 2010 Jul 8.
Repeated-sprint sequences during youth soccer matches.
Buchheit M, Mendez-villanueva A, Simpson BM, Bourdon PC.
This study examined the occurrence and nature of repeated-sprint sequences (RSS) in highly-trained young soccer players, as a function of age, playing position and playing time. Time-motion analyses using a global positioning system (GPS) were performed on 99 highly-trained young soccer (U13, U14, U15, U16, U17 and U18) players during 42 international games. Sprint activities were defined as at least a 1-s run at intensities higher than 61% of the individual peak running velocity; RSS, as a minimum of 2 consecutive sprints interspersed with a maximum of 60 s. During the first half of games the younger teams had a greater number of RSS than the older teams (P<0.001): U13>U14>U16>U15>U18>U17. The younger players also performed more (e. g., U14 vs. U17: 2.8±0.3 vs. 2.6±0.3, P<0.05) and longer (e. g., U14 vs. U17: 2.8±0.5 vs. 2.6±0.5 s, P<0.05) sprints per sequence than the older players. RSS occurrence was also affected by playing position and decreased throughout the game in most age-groups (P<0.001). Both the occurrence and the nature of RSS are affected by age, position and playing time. Present results also question the importance of repeated-sprint ability as a crucial physical component of soccer performance in developing players.
J Sports Sci. 2010 Nov;28(13):1391-7. doi: 10.1080/02640414.2010.510142.
Motion analysis of match-play in elite U12 to U16 age-group soccer players.
Harley JA, Barnes CA, Portas M, Lovell R, Barrett S, Paul D, Weston M.
The aim of this study was to quantify the motion demands of match-play in elite U12 to U16 age-group soccer players. Altogether, 112 players from two professional soccer clubs at five age-group levels (U12-U16) were monitored during competitive matches (n = 14) using a 5 Hz non-differential global positioning system (NdGPS). Velocity thresholds were normalized for each age-group using the mean squad times for a flying 10 m sprint test as a reference point. Match performance was reported as total distance, high-intensity distance, very high-intensity distance, and sprint distance. Data were reported both in absolute (m) and relative (m · min(-1)) terms due to a rolling substitute policy. The U15 (1.35 ± 0.09 s) and U16 (1.31 ± 0.06 s) players were significantly quicker than the U12 (1.58 ± 0.10 s), U13 (1.52 ± 0.07 s), and U14 (1.51 ± 0.08 s) players in the flying 10 m sprint test (P < 0.001). The U16 age-group covered significantly more absolute total distance (U16 > U12, U13, U14), high-intensity distance (U16 > U12, U13, U14, U15), very high-intensity distance (U16 > U12, U13), and sprint distance (U16 > U12, U13) than their younger counterparts (P < 0.05). When the data are considered relative to match exposure, few differences are apparent. Training prescription for youth soccer players should consider the specific demands of competitive match-play in each age-group.