Resumos selecionados [2013.03.03]

 Nesta semana, rolaram alguns resumos legais no pubmed:

 

Thivel D, Aucouturier J, Metz L, Morio B, Duché P.  Is there spontaneous energy expenditure compensation in response to intensive exercise in obese youth? Pediatr Obes. 2013 Feb 28. doi: 10.1111/j.2047-6310.2013.00148.x. [Epub ahead of print]

WHAT IS ALREADY KNOWN ABOUT THIS SUBJECT: Acute exercise may lead to subsequent energy expenditure compensation. Intensive exercise may favor a higher compensation than low or moderate exercises.

WHAT THIS STUDY ADDS: This post-exercise compensation might occur only in overweight/obese youth and not in lean. This work used objective measures of energy expenditure compare to previous work.

BACKGROUND: Physical activity is mainly used in weight control strategies to favour energy expenditure. Some evidence suggests that exercise might not have the expected impact on energy balance, and may actually cause a decrease in the subsequent physical activity energy expenditure.

OBJECTIVE: To question the impact of an acute exercise session of varying intensities on daily energy expenditure in lean and obese adolescents.

METHODS: Data from three separate studies conducted in lean and obese 12-15 years old adolescents (study 1: 12 obese; study 2: 10 obese and nine lean; study 3: 15 obese) have been used. Daily energy expenditure (DEE) was assessed in studies 1 and 2 during an exercise condition with an exercise bout at 70%VO2 max (EX) and a rest day (REST) (using Actiheart and Armbands, respectively). In study 3, DEE was assessed in calorimetric chambers during (i) a high intensity exercise condition (HIE – 75%VO2max ) and (ji) a condition with a low intensity exercise (LIE – 40%VO2 max) and (iii) a rest condition (REST).

RESULTS: Morning energy expenditure was significantly higher during the exercise conditions whatever the intensity compared with rest. Afternoon energy expenditure was significantly lower following HIE compared to the rest condition in studies 2 and 3. Afternoon energy expenditure was not significantly different between LIE and REST in study 2. Total DEE was not significantly different between conditions in the three studies.

CONCLUSION: Obese adolescents seem to show a compensatory response to an acute session of HIE (>70%VO2 max) by decreasing their following physical activity energy expenditure. Although HIE favours body composition, physical fitness and metabolic profile improvements, this induced compensatory energy expenditure response has to be considered to optimize its effect on weight loss.

 **Vai fazendo os contínuos com intensidade alta, vai….**

 

Montpetit AE, Plourde H, Cohen TR, Koski KG. Modeling the impact of prepregnancy BMI, physical activity, and energy intake on gestational weight gain, infant birth weight, and postpartum weight retention. J Phys Act Health. 2012 Sep;9(7):1020-9.

 

BACKGROUND: A “fit pregnancy” requires balancing energy expenditure with energy intake (EI) to achieve appropriate gestational weight gains (GWG), healthy infant birth weights (IBW), and minimal postpartum weight retention (PPWR). Our objective was to develop an integrated conceptual framework to assess the contribution of prepregnancy weight (PP-BMI), EI, and physical activity (PA) as determinants of GWG, IBW, and PPWR.

METHODS: Pregnant women (n = 59) were recruited from prenatal classes. Energy
intake was estimated using 3 24-hr diet recalls and PA using a validated PA
questionnaire and a pedometer. Telephone interviews at 6-weeks postpartum
assessed self-reported GWG, IBW, and PPWR. Hierarchical multiple regression
analyses were used to explore the potential predictors of GWG, IBW, and PPWR.

RESULTS: Prepregnancy BMI was associated with GWG, and EI was associated with IBW; each model captured only 6%-18% of the variability. In contrast, PPWR was predicted by PP-BMI, GWG, and EI, which together explained 61% of its variability, whereas GWG alone explained 51% of the variability in PPWR.

CONCLUSIONS: Modeling the relationship using hierarchical models suggests that PP-BMI, prepartum PA, and EI differentially impact GWG, IBW, and PPWR.

 

Klijn P, van Keimpema A, Legemaat M, Gosselink R, van Stel H. Nonlinear Exercise Training in Advanced COPD is Superior to Traditional Exercise Training: a Randomized Trial. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2013 Feb 28. [Epub ahead of print]

RATIONALE: The optimal exercise training intensity and strategy for individualized exercise training in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is not clear.

OBJECTIVE: This study compares the effects of nonlinear periodized exercise training (NLPE) used in athletes to traditional endurance and progressive resistance training (EPR) in patients with severe COPD.

METHODS: A total of 110 patients with severe COPD (FEV1 32% predicted) were randomized to
EPR or NLPE. Exercise training was performed three times per week for 10 weeks. The primary outcomes were cycling endurance time and health-related quality of life using the Chronic Respiratory Questionnaire. The difference in change between EPR and NLPE was assessed using linear mixed-effects modeling.

MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: NLPE resulted in significantly greater improvements in cycling endurance time compared to EPR. The difference in change was +300.6 s (95% confidence interval [CI] 197.2 – 404.2 s; p<0.001). NLPE also resulted in significantly greater improvements in all domains of the Chronic Respiratory Questionnaire compared to EPR, ranging from +0.48 (95% CI 0.19 –0.78) for the domain Emotions to +0.96 (95% CI 0.57 – 1.35) for Dyspnea.

CONCLUSION: NLPE results in greater improvements in cycle endurance and health-related quality of life in patients with severe COPD than traditional training methods. Clinical trial registration information available at http://www.trialregister.nl, i.d. NTR 1045.

 

Tibana RA, Navalta J, Bottaro M, Vieira D, Tajra V, Silva AD, de Farias DL, Pereira GB, de Souza JC, Balsamo S, Cavaglieri CR, Prestes J. Effects of eight weeks of resistance training on the risk factors of metabolic syndrome in overweight /obese women – “A Pilot Study”. Diabetol Metab Syndr. 2013 Feb 28;5(1):11. [Epub ahead of print]

BACKGROUND: The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of eight weeks of resistance training (RT) on anthropometric, cardiovascular and biochemical risk factors of metabolic syndrome (MetS), and neuromuscular variables on overweight/obese women.

METHODS: Fourteen middle-aged (33.9 +/- 8.6 years) overweight/obese women (body mass index – BMI 29.6 +/- 4.1 kg/m2) underwent 24 sessions (3 times/week) of a whole body RT program with 3 sets of 8–12 repetitions maximum (RM). The following variables were evaluated: maximum strength on chess press and frontal lat pull-down; isometric hand-grip strength; biceps brachii (BB) and rectus femoris (RF) muscle thickness, body mass; BMI; body adiposity index (BAI); waist, hip and neck circumferences; visceral fat volume; blood glucose; glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c); insulin; HDL-C and triglycerides.

RESULTS: There was an increase of chess press (from 52.9 +/- 9.7 to 59.8 +/- 7.7 kg; P = 0.02) and front lat pull-down (from 51.5 +/- 7.5 to 57.6 +/- 9.2 kg; P = 0.01) muscle strength, isometric handgrip (P = 0.02) and RF muscle thickness (from 42.2 +/- 8.5 to 45.1 +/- 7.3 mm; P = 0.02) after the 8 week RT program. There were no statistically significant alterations on plasma glucose, HbA1c, insulin, triglycerides, HDL-C, anthropometric indexes and BB muscle thickness (p > .05).

CONCLUSIONS: A RT program without caloric restriction promotes an increase on muscle thickness and strength, with no effects on risk factors of MetS in overweight/obese women.

*Povo prescreve exercício de força de modo equivocado e, aí, o tipo de estímulo que não serve :X*

Geriatr Gerontol Int. 2013 Feb 26. doi: 10.1111/ggi.12033. [Epub ahead of print]
Long-term effects of aerobic training versus combined aerobic and resistance training in modifying cardiovascular disease risk factors in healthy elderly men.
Sousa N, Mendes R, Abrantes C, Sampaio J, Oliveira J.

AIMS: The purpose of the present study was to compare different modes of exercise
in chronic modification of cardiovascular diseases risk factors. METHODS: A total
of 48 healthy elderly men were randomly assigned to an aerobic training group
(n = 15, aged 71.7 ± 4.7 years), a combined (aerobic and resistance) training
group (n = 16, aged 68.5 ± 3.5 years) and a control group (n = 17, aged
67.0 ± 5.8 years). Both training programs were of moderate-to-vigorous intensity,
3 days per week for 9 months. Primary outcome measures included body composition,
blood pressure and lipid profile. Odds ratios (OR) between hypertension, obesity
and dyslipidemia were calculated. The independence between risk factors,
aggregation and group factor was tested (baseline vs post-test). RESULTS: There
was significant aggregation between hypertension and obesity (OR 2.57, 95% CI
1.24-5.33). After 32 weeks, there was a significant change in the number of
hypertensive (χ(2)  = 8.1, P = 0.004) and dyslipidemic (χ(2)  = 3.9, P = 0.049)
participants, and also a favorable modification in the risk factors aggregation
(χ(2)  = 7.9, P = 0.019), but only in the combined training group. CONCLUSIONS:
Combined aerobic and resistance training is more effective in the chronic
modification of blood pressure and lipid profile, and in the reduction of total
risk factors aggregated. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2013

 

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