Time trends in physical activity in the state of São Paulo, Brazil: 2002-2008.
Matsudo VK, Matsudo SM, Araújo TL, Andrade DR, Oliveira LC, Hallal PC.
Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2010 Dec;42(12):2231-6.
To document time trends in physical activity in the state of São Paulo, Brazil (2002-2008). In addition, we discuss the role of Agita São Paulo at explaining such trends.
Cross-sectional surveys were carried out in 2002, 2003, 2006, and 2008 in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, using comparable sampling approaches and similar sample sizes. In all surveys, physical activity was measured using the short version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Separate weekly scores of walking and moderate- and vigorous-intensity physical activities were generated; cutoff points of 0 and 150 min·wk were used. Also, we created a total physical activity score by summing these three types of activity. We used logistic regression models for adjusting time trends for the different sociodemographic compositions of the samples.
The prevalence of no physical activity decreased from 9.6% in 2002 to 2.7% in 2008, whereas the proportion of subjects below the 150-min threshold decreased from 43.7% in 2002 to 11.6% in 2008. These trends were mainly explained by increases in walking and moderate-intensity physical activity. Increases in physical activity were slightly greater among females than among males. Logistic regression models confirmed that these trends were not due to the different compositions of the samples.
Physical activity levels are increasing in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Considering that the few data available in Brazil using the same instrument indicate exactly the opposite trend and that Agita São Paulo primarily incentives the involvement in moderate-intensity physical activity and walking, it seems that at least part of the trends described here are explained by the Agita São Paulo program.
J Sci Med Sport. 2011 Sep 28. [Epub ahead of print]
Secular trends in fitness, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, and TV-viewing among first grade school children of Crete, Greece between 1992/93 and 2006/07.
Smpokos EA, Linardakis M, Papadaki A, Lionis C, Kafatos A.
To assess secular changes in physical fitness (PF), moderate-to-vigorous-physical activity (MVPA) and TV-viewing in 1st-grade children from Crete, Greece. Cross sectional cohorts examined in academic years 1992/93 and 2006/07. Two representative samples of children, aged 5.9-7.8 years, were studied during 1992/93 (N=606) and 2006/07 (N=361). PF (sit-and-reach, standing-broad-jump, sit-ups and 20m-shuttle-run-test) was assessed by the European-PF test battery and MVPA by a physical activity (PA) questionnaire. Data on the frequency of TV-viewing was also collected. Between 1992/93 and 2006/07, there was a significant increase in all fitness tests in both genders (P<0.001) and in MVPA in boys (76.5min/week vs. 38.7min/week, P<0.001). Time spent watching TV on weekdays was significantly more in both genders in 2006/07, compared to 1992/93 (P<0.001). In 2006/07, active boys and active girls spent more time in MVPA than active boys and girls in 1992/93 (P<0.001). Significantly higher proportions of boys and girls engaged in vigorous activities in 2006/07, than 1992/93 (P<0.001 and P=0.027, respectively). A significant increase in physical and cardiorespiratory fitness in both genders and MVPA in boys was observed inchildren from Crete between 1992/93 and 2006/07. The increase in weekday TV-viewing, despite being parallel to an increase in leisure-time MVPA, could have an unfavorable effect on health and should be tackled in future interventions in this population. Dietary, anthropometric and biochemical indices should also be investigated to assess their impact on the secular changes in physical fitness and activity observed in this sample of children.