Hormones (Athens). 2011 Apr;10(2):125-30.
Combined strength and aerobic training increases transforming growth factor-Î²1 in patients with type 2 diabetes.
Touvra AM, Volaklis KA, Spassis AT, Zois CE, Douda HD, Kotsa K, Tokmakidis SP.
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of a combined strength and aerobic training program on pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and transforming growth factor-Î²1 in patients with type 2 diabetes. DESIGN: Ten patients with type 2 diabetes, aged 55.5 (5) years [median (IQR)] participated in a supervised systematic exercise training program which included aerobic exercise and strength training, undertaken four days per week for eight weeks. RESULTS: The training program increased transforming growth factor-Î²1 concentration (+50.4%) and reduced high sensitivity C reactive protein levels (-24.1%) without altering the levels of interleukin-6, interleukin-10, interferon-Î³ and tumor necrosis factor-Î±. Additional improvements were also achieved in anthropometric characteristics, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c: -11.8%), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR: -15%) and physical fitness parameters (stress test: +26.6%, upper muscle strength: +32.4% and lower muscle strength: +48.9%). CONCLUSION: A combined strength and aerobic exercise program has a potential anti-atherogenic and anti-inflammatory impact which most likely reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease and improves the health status in patients with type 2 diabetes.