Treinamento Neuromuscular (Treinamento Híbrido ou Hybrid Training) – Novas evidências sobre a Eletroestimulação

Saiu há algum tempo no Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism um artigo de japoneses indicando que o treinamento neuromuscular híbrido (musculação + eletroestimulação, e neste caso é mais uma denminação de treino híbrido) pode ser interessante para idosos. Após algum tempo de treino (12 semanas), os velhinhos apresentaram menor glicemina sanguínea em jejum e menores quantidades séricas de interleucina 6 (IL6).

Já no outro estudo, obsevou-se que a eletroestimulação neuromuscular pode contribuir na lipólise, mas os dados ainda decorrem de investigações in vitro.

Kawaguchi T el al. Hybrid training of voluntary and electrical muscle contractions decreased fasting blood glucose and serum interleukin-6 levels in elderly people: a pilot study. Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, 2011, 36:276-283, 10.1139/h10-108 (http://www.nrcresearchpress.com/doi/abs/10.1139/h10-108).

A new muscle-training method, “hybrid training”, utilizing combined voluntary and electrical muscle contractions, is effective for increasing muscle mass and force on lower extremities in elderly people. Although skeletal muscle regulates glucose metabolism, partly by releasing interleukin (IL)-6, the effects of hybrid training on glucose metabolism remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of hybrid training on glucose metabolism and serum IL-6 levels in elderly people. Hybrid training was performed on 7 elderly subjects. Both quadriceps and hamstrings were contracted voluntarily or electrically at the same time for 19 min twice a week. The effects on glucose metabolism and serum IL-6 levels were evaluated after 12 weeks of hybrid training. All of the subjects completed the study, and no severe adverse events developed during the study period. There were no significant differences in body mass index, serum insulin levels, homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance values, or hemoglobin A1c values after hybrid training. However, fasting blood glucose levels were significantly decreased after hybrid training (114 ± 13 vs. 103 ± 9 mg·dL–1; p = 0.0340). In addition, all 7 subjects showed a decrease in serum IL-6 levels after hybrid training, and this decrease was statistically significant (44.0 ± 35.6 vs. 14.6 ± 10.5 pg·mL–1; p = 0.0180). Furthermore, there was a significant correlation between changes in serum IL-6 levels and changes in fasting blood glucose levels (ρ = 0.883; p = 0.0306). In this study, we showed the safety and good adherence of hybrid training for lower extremities in elderly people. Furthermore, hybrid training decreased fasting blood glucose and serum IL-6 levels in elderly people.

 

 

Hamida ZH et al. Effect of electrical stimulation on lipolysis of human white adipocytes. Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, 2011, 36:271-275, 10.1139/h11-011. (http://www.nrcresearchpress.com/doi/abs/10.1139/h11-011).

The goal of the present study was to investigate the effect of 30 min of electrical stimulation on the activation of lipolysis in human white adipocytes. Two stimulation protocols (S1, S2) were conducted in vitro on isolated human white adipocytes. Subcutaneous adipose tissue was obtained from female subjects undergoing abdominal adipose tissue reduction. Adipose tissue of 10 female subjects (mean age, 38.7 ± 9.1 years) and 6 female subjects (mean age, 37.2 ± 11.3 years) was obtained for S1 and S2, respectively. All subjects fasted overnight before tissue removal. The control conditions were a basal and a β-adrenergic stimulation (isoproterenol (ISO), 10−6 mol·L–1) of lipolysis. For S1, the 3 electrostimulation conditions consisted of a monopolar square-wave pulse current for 30 min at intensities of 4, 8, and 20 mA, respectively. In S2, the 2 electrostimulation conditions consisted of a bipolar square-wave alternating current for 30 min at intensities of 4 and 6 mA, respectively. Fat cell lipolysis was measured by quantifying the release of glycerol from adipocytes for 3 trials in each experimental condition. For S1, 4 mA significantly increased lipolysis 1.5 times over basal values (p ≤ 0.01), 8 mA and 20 mA did not increase lipolysis significantly, and no significant difference (p > 0.05) was found between ISO and 4 mA. For S2, 4 mA (p ≤ 0.05) and 6 mA (p ≤ 0.01) significantly increased lipolysis by 1.8 and 2.3 times above basal, respectively. Our results demonstrate that both monopolar (4 mA) and bipolar (4 and 6 mA) electrical stimulations significantly activated in vitro lipolysis. Our findings suggest the existence of a new lipolytic pathway that may involve Kv channels shown to exist in human white adipocytes.

 

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