Há algum tempo atrás eu postei uma reportagem sobre uma nova forma de as pessoas enxergarem a saúde, tentando fazer com que indivíduos acima do peso se sintam felizes:
Sim, de fato, isto é essencial. Alguém que não se sinta bem consigo mesmo dificilmente terá êxito em algo (além do suicídio, óbvio).
Isto pode existir porque, possivelmente, o gasto calórico não é a variável MAIS IMPORTANTE no processo de perda e/ou manutenção da massa gorda:
Annesi JJ. Behaviorally Supported Exercise Predicts Weight Loss in Obese Adults Through Improvements in Mood, Self-Efficacy, and Self-Regulation, Rather Than by Caloric Expenditure. The Permanente Journal/ Winter 2011/ Volume 15 No. 1.
Background: The relationship of exercise to weight loss, beyond minimal caloric expenditures possible in obese and deconditioned individuals, requires clarification.
Objective: We assessed whether changes in theory-based psychological variables associated with participation in an exercise treatment extended to psychologically based predictors of controlled eating and weight and waistcircumference reductions.
Methods: A group of 137 adults with severe obesity (mean body mass index, 42.2 kg/m2) volunteered for an exercise-support and nutrition-education treatment of 26 weeks’ duration that was based on social cognitive theory. Exercise- and eating-related measures of mood, self-regulation, and selfefficacy were obtained at baseline and at treatment end, along with weight, waist circumference, and exercise volume. Analyses were also conducted separately for women participants only (n = 102).
Results: Treatment-induced changes in total mood disturbance, selfregulatory skill usage for exercise, and exercise self-efficacy were significantly related to changes in self-efficacy to control emotional eating, self-regulatory skill usage for controlled eating, and overall self-efficacy for controlled eating, respectively (p < 0.001). Changes in the eating-related measures significantly predicted changes in weight and waist circumference with adjusted R2 values from 0.15 to 0.21 and 0.28 to 0.30, respectively (p < 0.001). Post-hoc testing indicated a strong negative correlation between exercise completed and weight change (r = –0.62); however, only 12.4% of the observed weight change was accounted for through associated caloric expenditures.
Conclusion: Exercise may support weight loss primarily through psychological rather than physiological pathways. Although the models tested were viable, additional modifiable variables may further strengthen the prediction of weight and waist-circumference change and benefit weight-loss theory and treatment outcomes.
Complementarmente a isto, como alguns já sabem, tenho optado por um esquema nutricional um pouco radical, que tem me ajudado de algum modo (e possivelmente prejudicado de outro, mas que ainda não descobri).
Para parar com esse papo de que é “loucura” ou que vou morrer com isto, resolvi colocar, abaixo, alguns resumos de artigos que suportam minhas escolhas:
The Effects of Caloric Restriction on Health and Longevity.
OPINION STATEMENT: There is increasing evidence that restricting caloric intake may have considerable health benefits in humans. Significant evidence in non-primate animals demonstrates that caloric restriction increases average and maximal life span. However, historically, caloric intake reduction in humans has been involuntary and accompanied by poverty, malnutrition, poor sanitation, and a lack of modern health care. As a result, caloric restriction in people typically has been accompanied by a reduction of both average and maximal life span. Conversely, improvements in standards of living usually are accompanied by an increased food supply and resultant improved health and longevity. The majority of the world is now in a new era where an abundance of caloric intake and its associated obesity are causing widespread chronic illness and premature death. What would happen if one were to institute caloric restriction with high-quality nutrition within an environment of modern sanitation and health care? This review argues that improved health and improved average life span would quite likely result. A lengthening of maximal human life span with this combination is perhaps possible but by no means certain.
Anderson RM, Weindruch R. Metabolic reprogramming, caloric restriction and aging. Trends Endocrinol Metab. 2010 Mar;21(3):134-41. Epub 2009 Dec 7.
Caloric restriction (CR) without malnutrition slows the aging process and extends lifespan in diverse species by unknown mechanisms. The inverse linear relationship between calorie intake and lifespan suggests that regulators of energy metabolism are important in the actions of CR. Studies in several species reveal tissue-specific changes in energy metabolism with CR and suggest that metabolic reprogramming plays a critical role in its mechanism of aging retardation. We herein describe common signatures of CR and suggest how they can slow aging. We discuss recent advances in understanding the function of key metabolic regulators that probably coordinate the response to altered nutrient availability with CR and how the pathways they regulate can retard the aging process.
Colman RJ, Anderson RM, Johnson SC, Kastman EK, Kosmatka KJ, Beasley TM, Allison DB, Cruzen C, Simmons HA, Kemnitz JW, Weindruch R. Caloric restriction delays disease onset and mortality in rhesus monkeys. Science. 2009 Jul 10;325(5937):201-4.
Caloric restriction (CR), without malnutrition, delays aging and extends life span in diverse species; however, its effect on resistance to illness and mortality in primates has not been clearly established. We report findings of a 20-year longitudinal adult-onset CR study in rhesus monkeys aimed at filling this critical gap in aging research. In a population of rhesus macaques maintained at the Wisconsin National Primate Research Center, moderate CR lowered the incidence of aging-related deaths. At the time point reported, 50% of control fed animals survived as compared with 80% of the CR animals. Furthermore, CR delayed the onset of age-associated pathologies. Specifically, CR reduced the incidence of diabetes, cancer, cardiovascular disease, and brain atrophy. These data demonstrate that CR slows aging in a primate species.
Rezzi S, Martin FP, Shanmuganayagam D, Colman RJ, Nicholson JK, Weindruch R. Metabolic shifts due to long-term caloric restriction revealed in nonhuman primates. Exp Gerontol. 2009 May;44(5):356-62. Epub 2009 Mar 3.
The long-term health benefits of caloric restriction (CR) are well known but the associated molecular mechanisms are poorly understood despite increasing knowledge of transcriptional and related metabolic changes. We report new metabolic insights into long-term CR in nonhuman primates revealed by the holistic inspection of plasma (1)H NMR spectroscopic metabolic and lipoprotein profiles. The results revealed attenuation of aging-dependant alterations of lipoprotein and energy metabolism by CR, noted by relative increase in HDL and reduction in VLDL levels. Metabonomic analysis also revealed animals exhibiting distinct metabolic trajectories from aging that correlated with higher insulin sensitivity. The plasma profiles of insulin-sensitive animals were marked by higher levels of gluconate and acetate suggesting a CR-modulated increase in metabolic flux through the pentose-phosphate pathway. The metabonomic findings, particularly those that parallel improved insulin sensitivity, are consistent with diminished adiposity in CR monkeys despite aging. The metabolic profile and the associated pathways are compatible with our previous findings that CR-induced gene transcriptional changes in tissue suggest the critical regulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors as a key mechanism. The metabolic phenotyping provided in this study can be used to define a reference molecular profile of CR-associated health benefits and longevity in symbiotic superorganisms and man.
McKiernan SH, Colman RJ, Lopez M, Beasley TM, Aiken JM, Anderson RM, Weindruch R. Caloric restriction delays aging-induced cellular phenotypes in rhesus monkey skeletal muscle. Exp Gerontol. 2011 Jan;46(1):23-9. Epub 2010 Sep 29.
Sarcopenia is the age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass and function and is characterized by a reduction in muscle mass and fiber cross-sectional area, alterations in muscle fiber type and mitochondrial functional changes. In rhesus monkeys, calorie restriction (CR) without malnutrition improves survival and delays the onset of age-associated diseases and disorders including sarcopenia. We present a longitudinal study on the impact of CR on early stage sarcopenia in the upper leg of monkeys from ~16 years to ~22 years of age. Using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry we show that CR delayed the development of maximum muscle mass and, unlike Control animals, muscle mass of the upper leg was preserved in CR animals during early phase sarcopenia. Histochemical analyses of vastus lateralis muscle biopsies revealed that CR opposed age-related changes in the proportion of Type II muscle fibers and fiber cross-sectional area. In contrast the number of muscle fibers with mitochondrial electron transport system enzyme abnormalities (ETS(ab)) was not significantly affected by CR. Laser capture microdissection of ETS(ab) fibers and subsequent PCR analysis of the mitochondrial DNA revealed large deletion mutations in fibers with abnormal mitochondrial enzyme activities. CR did not prevent stochastic mitochondrial deletion mutations in muscle fibers but CR may have contributed to the maintenance of affected fibers.
Bendlin BB, Canu E, Willette A, Kastman EK, McLaren DG, Kosmatka KJ, Xu G, Field AS, Colman RJ, Coe CL, Weindruch RH, Alexander AL, Johnson SC. Effects of aging and calorie restriction on white matter in rhesus macaques. Neurobiol Aging. 2010 Jun 10. [Epub ahead of print]
Rhesus macaques on a calorie restricted diet (CR) develop less age-related disease, have virtually no indication of diabetes, are protected against sarcopenia, and potentially live longer. Beneficial effects of caloric restriction likely include reductions in age-related inflammation and oxidative damage. Oligodendrocytes are particularly susceptible to inflammation and oxidative stress, therefore, we hypothesized that CR would have a beneficial effect on brain white matter and would attenuate age-related decline in this tissue. CR monkeys and controls underwent diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). A beneficial effect of CR indexed by DTI was observed in superior longitudinal fasciculus, fronto-occipital fasciculus, external capsule, and brainstem. Aging effects were observed in several regions, although CR appeared to attenuate age-related alterations in superior longitudinal fasciculus, frontal white matter, external capsule, right parahippocampal white matter, and dorsal occipital bundle. The results, however, were regionally specific and also suggested that CR is not salutary across all white matter. Further evaluation of this unique cohort of elderly primates to mortality will shed light on the ultimate benefits of an adult-onset, moderate CR diet for deferring brain aging.
Kastman EK, Willette AA, Coe CL, Bendlin BB, Kosmatka KJ, McLaren DG, Xu G, Canu E, Field AS, Alexander AL, Voytko ML, Beasley TM, Colman RJ, Weindruch RH, Johnson SC. A calorie-restricted diet decreases brain iron accumulation and preserves motor performance in old rhesus monkeys. J Neurosci. 2010 Jun 9;30(23):7940-7.
Caloric restriction (CR) reduces the pathological effects of aging and extends the lifespan in many species, including nonhuman primates, although the effect on the brain is less well characterized. We used two common indicators of aging, motor performance speed and brain iron deposition measured in vivo using MRI, to determine the potential effect of CR on elderly rhesus macaques eating restricted (n = 24; 13 males, 11 females) and standard diets (n = 17; 8 males, 9 females). Both the CR and control monkeys showed age-related increases in iron concentrations in globus pallidus (GP) and substantia nigra (SN), although the CR group had significantly less iron deposition in the GP, SN, red nucleus, and temporal cortex. A diet x age interaction revealed that CR modified age-related brain changes, evidenced as attenuation in the rate of iron accumulation in basal ganglia and parietal, temporal, and perirhinal cortex. Additionally, control monkeys had significantly slower fine motor performance on the Movement Assessment Panel, which was negatively correlated with iron accumulation in left SN and parietal lobe, although CR animals did not show this relationship. Our observations suggest that the CR-induced benefit of reduced iron deposition and preserved motor function may indicate neural protection similar to effects described previously in aging rodent and primate species.
Someya S, Tanokura M, Weindruch R, Prolla TA, Yamasoba T. Effects of caloric restriction on age-related hearing loss in rodents and rhesus monkeys. Curr Aging Sci. 2010 Feb;3(1):20-5.
Age-related hearing loss (AHL), also known as presbycusis, is a universal feature of mammalian aging and is the most frequently occurring sensory disorder in the elderly population. AHL is characterized by a decline of auditory function and loss of hair cells and spiral ganglion neurons in the cochlea of the inner ear. It has been postulated that AHL occurs gradually as a result of the cumulative effect with aging of exposure to noise, diet, oxidative damage, and mitochondrial DNA mutations. However, the molecular mechanisms of AHL remain unclear and no preventative or therapeutic interventions have been developed. A growing body of evidence suggests increased oxidative damage with aging to macromolecules such as DNA, proteins, and lipids may play a causal role in aging and age-related diseases. Caloric restriction (CR) extends the lifespan of most mammalian species, delays the onset of multiple age-related diseases, and attenuates both the degree of oxidative damage and the associated decline in physiological function. Here, we review studies on CR’s ability to prevent cochlear pathology and AHL in laboratory animals and discuss potential molecular mechanisms of CR’s actions.
Hagopian K, Ramsey JJ, Weindruch R. Enzymes of glycerol and glyceraldehyde metabolism in mouse liver: effects of caloric restriction and age on activities. Biosci Rep. 2008 Apr;28(2):107-15.
The influence of caloric restriction on hepatic glyceraldehyde- and glycerol-metabolizing enzyme activities of young and old mice were studied. Glycerol kinase and cytoplasmic glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase activities were increased in both young and old CR (calorie-restricted) mice when compared with controls, whereas triokinase increased only in old CR mice. Aldehyde dehydrogenase and aldehyde reductase activities in both young and old CR mice were unchanged by caloric restriction. Mitochondrial glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase showed a trend towards an increased activity in old CR mice, whereas a trend towards a decreased activity in alcohol dehydrogenase was observed in both young and old CR mice. Serum glycerol levels decreased in young and old CR mice. Therefore increases in glycerol kinase and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase were associated with a decrease in fasting blood glycerol levels in CR animals. A prominent role for triokinase in glyceraldehyde metabolism with CR was also observed. The results indicate that long-term caloric restriction induces sustained increases in the capacity for gluconeogenesis from glycerol.
Fowler CG, Chiasson KB, Leslie TH, Thomas D, Beasley TM, Kemnitz JW, Weindruch R. Auditory function in rhesus monkeys: effects of aging and caloric restriction in the Wisconsin monkeys five years later. Hear Res. 2010 Mar;261(1-2):75-81. Epub 2010 Jan 15.
Caloric restriction (CR) slows aging in many species and protects some animals from age-related hearing loss (ARHL), but the effect on humans is not yet known. Because rhesus monkeys are long-lived primates that are phylogenically closer to humans than other research animals are, they provide a better model for studying the effects of CR in aging and ARHL. Subjects were from the pool of 55 rhesus monkeys aged 15-28 years who had been in the Wisconsin study on CR and aging for 8-13.5 years. Distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAE) with f2 frequencies from 2211 to 8837 Hz and auditory brainstem response (ABR) thresholds from clicks and 8, 16, and 32 kHz tone bursts were obtained. DPOAE levels declined linearly at approximately 1 dB/year, but that rate doubled for the highest frequencies in the oldest monkeys. There were no interactions for diet condition or sex. ABR thresholds to clicks and tone bursts showed increases with aging. Borderline significance was shown for diet in the thresholds at 8 kHz stimuli, with monkeys on caloric restriction having lower thresholds. Because the rhesus monkeys have a maximum longevity of 40 years, the full benefits of CR may not yet be realized.
E, para terminar, dados de sobrevivência e mortalidade dos macacos, assim como uma visão da aparência física dos mesmos!
Só para constar, as imagens da direita são de macacos que passaram por restrição calórica controlada:
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