Treinamento Funcional?

Todo momento alguém me interpela para explicar o porquê de não usar exercícios funcionais/instaveis no treino de força dos atletas que trabalhei.
O motivo é simples, além de não ajudar no aumento da força e da potência, mas atrapalham do que ajudam.
Para algumas situações específicas, talvez, pode ser que, de algum modo, em algum momento, ocorra algum tipo de ajuste benéfico.
No entanto, não entro nesse barco e, como li recentemente: sugiro que furem as bolas! hahahahaha
 
 
Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2010 Feb;35(1):109-12.
Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology position stand: The use of instability to train the core in athletic and nonathletic conditioning.
Behm DG, Drinkwater EJ, Willardson JM, Cowley PM; Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology.
 
The use of instability devices and exercises to train the core musculature is an essential feature of many training centres and programs. It was the intent of this position stand to provide recommendations regarding the role of instability in resistance training programs designed to train the core musculature. The core is defined as the axial skeleton and all soft tissues with a proximal attachment originating on the axial skeleton, regardless of whether the soft tissue terminates on the axial or appendicular skeleton. Core stability can be achieved with a combination of muscle activation and intra-abdominal pressure. Abdominal bracing has been shown to be more effective than abdominal hollowing in optimizing spinal stability. When similar exercises are performed, core and limb muscle activation are reported to be higher under unstable conditions than under stable conditions. However, core muscle activation that is similar to or higher than that achieved in unstable conditions can also be achieved with ground-based free-weight exercises, such as Olympic lifts, squats, and dead lifts. Since the addition of unstable bases to resistance exercises can decrease force, power, velocity, and range of motion, they are not recommended as the primary training mode for athletic conditioning. However, the high muscle activation with the use of lower loads associated with instability resistance training suggests they can play an important role within a periodized training schedule, in rehabilitation programs, and for nonathletic individuals who prefer not to use ground-based free weights to achieve musculoskeletal health benefits.
 
 
Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2010 Feb;35(1):91-108.
The use of instability to train the core musculature.
Behm DG, Drinkwater EJ, Willardson JM, Cowley PM.
 
Training of the trunk or core muscles for enhanced health, rehabilitation, and athletic performance has received renewed emphasis. Instability resistance exercises have become a popular means of training the core and improving balance. Whether instability resistance training is as, more, or less effective than traditional ground-based resistance training is not fully resolved. The purpose of this review is to address the effectiveness of instability resistance training for athletic, nonathletic, and rehabilitation conditioning. The anatomical core is defined as the axial skeleton and all soft tissues with a proximal attachment on the axial skeleton. Spinal stability is an interaction of passive and active muscle and neural subsystems. Training programs must prepare athletes for a wide variety of postures and external forces, and should include exercises with a destabilizing component. While unstable devices have been shown to be effective in decreasing the incidence of low back pain and increasing the sensory efficiency of soft tissues, they are not recommended as the primary exercises for hypertrophy, absolute strength, or power, especially in trained athletes. For athletes, ground-based free-weight exercises with moderate levels of instability should form the foundation of exercises to train the core musculature. Instability resistance exercises can play an important role in periodization and rehabilitation, and as alternative exercises for the recreationally active individual with less interest or access to ground-based free-weight exercises. Based on the relatively high proportion of type I fibers, the core musculature might respond well to multiple sets with high repetitions (e.g., >15 per set); however, a particular sport may necessitate fewer repetitions.
 
Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2007 Dec;2(4):400-13.
Effect of instability and resistance on unintentional squat-lifting kinetics.
Drinkwater EJ, Pritchett EJ, Behm DG.
 
CONTEXT: Resistance training while using an instability-training device is known to increase activation of stabilizing muscle groups while decreasing the force generated by the prime movers during isometric contractions. Purpose: To investigate differences in squat kinetics during dynamic resistance training in an increasingly unstable training environment.
METHODS: Fourteen active men participated in this study. In each testing session, each participant performed 3 repetitions of squats with a 10-repetition maximum (10-RM) resistance, 40% of their 10-RM resistance, and 20.45 kg. The 3 testing session consisted of standing on a stable floor, foam pads, or BOSU balls. All repetitions were recorded with an optical encoder to record barbell kinetics.
RESULTS: The transition from stable (floor) to very unstable (BOSU) resulted in high likelihoods (>75%) of clinically meaningful differences ranging from small to large (effect size [ES] 0.31-1.73) in factors relating to concentric kinetics, eccentric power, and squat depth, regardless of the resistance used for training. There were also likely differences at the heaviest resistance in peak concentric power (stable to foam: ES 2.06; foam to BOSU: ES 0.38), eccentric power (stable to foam: ES 1.88; foam to BOSU: ES 0.74), and squat depth (stable to foam: ES 0.50; foam to BOSU: ES 0.67).
CONCLUSIONS: Resistance training in an unstable environment at an intensity sufficient to elicit strength gains of the prime movers results in deleterious effects in concentric squat kinetics and squat technique. Such observations are particularly evident on very unstable platforms.
 
Sparkes, R and Behm, DG. Training adaptations associated with an 8-week instability resistance training program with recreationally active individuals. J Strength Cond Res 24(7): 1931-1941, 2010.
Instability devices are popular training modalities; however, their training effectiveness has not been well established. The objective of this study was to determine differences in physiological and performance measures after stable and unstable resistance training. Eighteen subjects (10 men and 8 women) resistance trained 3 d[middle dot]wk-1 under either stable or unstable conditions for 8 weeks. Pre and posttraining measures included chest press isometric force and electromyographic activity of the triceps brachii and pectoralis major under stable and unstable conditions and 1-legged throwing distance, balance, countermovement jump (CMJ) and drop jump (DJ) heights. There were no significant training group effects found with any measure. However, there was a tendency (p = 0.06) for the unstable training group to improve the stable to unstable chest press force ratio to a greater degree (24.8%) than the stable group (10.8%). There were significant overall pre to posttraining improvements in maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) force (13.3%: p < 0.0001), unstable/stable force (18.2%: p = 0.0005), bench press (11%: p < 0.0001), squat (14.9%: p < 0.0001), CMJs (11.2%: p = 0.002), and DJs (3.3%: p = 0.001), wobble board contacts (12.4%: p = 0.03), and wobble board on-off ratios (62%: p = 0.005). There was a significant (p < 0.0001) 42.2% greater MVIC force and 43.2 and 33.2% greater triceps (p = 0.003) and pectoral (p = 0.005) neuromuscular efficiency with stable vs. unstable isometric chest press. It appears that instability resistance training, which reportedly uses lower forces, can increase strength and balance in previously untrained young individuals similar to training with more stable machines employing heavier loads.
 
 
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